Last 5.3 release ever available: PHP 5.3.29 - 5.3 now EOL

PDOStatement::execute

(PHP 5 >= 5.1.0, PECL pdo >= 0.1.0)

PDOStatement::execute Executes a prepared statement

Description

public bool PDOStatement::execute ([ array $input_parameters ] )

Execute the prepared statement. If the prepared statement included parameter markers, you must either:

  • call PDOStatement::bindParam() to bind PHP variables to the parameter markers: bound variables pass their value as input and receive the output value, if any, of their associated parameter markers

  • or pass an array of input-only parameter values

Parameters

input_parameters

An array of values with as many elements as there are bound parameters in the SQL statement being executed. All values are treated as PDO::PARAM_STR.

You cannot bind multiple values to a single parameter; for example, you cannot bind two values to a single named parameter in an IN() clause.

You cannot bind more values than specified; if more keys exist in input_parameters than in the SQL specified in the PDO::prepare(), then the statement will fail and an error is emitted.

Return Values

Returns TRUE on success or FALSE on failure.

Changelog

Version Description
5.2.0 The keys from input_parameters must match the ones declared in the SQL. Before PHP 5.2.0 this was silently ignored.

Examples

Example #1 Execute a prepared statement with bound variables

<?php
/* Execute a prepared statement by binding PHP variables */
$calories 150;
$colour 'red';
$sth $dbh->prepare('SELECT name, colour, calories
    FROM fruit
    WHERE calories < :calories AND colour = :colour'
);
$sth->bindParam(':calories'$caloriesPDO::PARAM_INT);
$sth->bindParam(':colour'$colourPDO::PARAM_STR12);
$sth->execute();
?>

Example #2 Execute a prepared statement with an array of insert values (named parameters)

<?php
/* Execute a prepared statement by passing an array of insert values */
$calories 150;
$colour 'red';
$sth $dbh->prepare('SELECT name, colour, calories
    FROM fruit
    WHERE calories < :calories AND colour = :colour'
);
$sth->execute(array(':calories' => $calories':colour' => $colour));
?>

Example #3 Execute a prepared statement with an array of insert values (placeholders)

<?php
/* Execute a prepared statement by passing an array of insert values */
$calories 150;
$colour 'red';
$sth $dbh->prepare('SELECT name, colour, calories
    FROM fruit
    WHERE calories < ? AND colour = ?'
);
$sth->execute(array($calories$colour));
?>

Example #4 Execute a prepared statement with question mark placeholders

<?php
/* Execute a prepared statement by binding PHP variables */
$calories 150;
$colour 'red';
$sth $dbh->prepare('SELECT name, colour, calories
    FROM fruit
    WHERE calories < ? AND colour = ?'
);
$sth->bindParam(1$caloriesPDO::PARAM_INT);
$sth->bindParam(2$colourPDO::PARAM_STR12);
$sth->execute();
?>

Example #5 Execute a prepared statement using array for IN clause

<?php
/* Execute a prepared statement using an array of values for an IN clause */
$params = array(12163171);
/* Create a string for the parameter placeholders filled to the number of params */
$place_holders implode(','array_fill(0count($params), '?'));

/*
    This prepares the statement with enough unnamed placeholders for every value
    in our $params array. The values of the $params array are then bound to the
    placeholders in the prepared statement when the statement is executed.
    This is not the same thing as using PDOStatement::bindParam() since this
    requires a reference to the variable. PDOStatement::execute() only binds
    by value instead.
*/
$sth $dbh->prepare("SELECT id, name FROM contacts WHERE id IN ($place_holders)");
$sth->execute($params);
?>

Notes

Note:

Some drivers require to close cursor before executing next statement.

See Also

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 20 notes

up
5
Rami jamleh
1 year ago
simplified $placeholder form

<?php

$data
= ['a'=>'foo','b'=>'bar'];

$keys = array_keys($data);
$fields = '`'.implode('`, `',$keys).'`';

#here is my way
$placeholder = substr(str_repeat('?,',count($keys),0,-1));

$pdo->prepare("INSERT INTO `baz`($fields) VALUES($placeholder)")->execute(array_values($data));
up
7
VolGas
7 years ago
An array of insert values (named parameters) don't need the prefixed colon als key-value to work.

<?php
/* Execute a prepared statement by passing an array of insert values */
$calories = 150;
$colour = 'red';
$sth = $dbh->prepare('SELECT name, colour, calories
   FROM fruit
   WHERE calories < :calories AND colour = :colour'
);
// instead of:
//     $sth->execute(array(':calories' => $calories, ':colour' => $colour));
// this works fine, too:
$sth->execute(array('calories' => $calories, 'colour' => $colour));
?>

This allows to use "regular" assembled hash-tables (arrays).
That realy does make sense!
up
6
gx
4 years ago
Note that you must
- EITHER pass all values to bind in an array to PDOStatement::execute()
- OR bind every value before with PDOStatement::bindValue(), then call PDOStatement::execute() with *no* parameter (not even "array()"!).
Passing an array (empty or not) to execute() will "erase" and replace any previous bindings (and can lead to, e.g. with MySQL, "SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 2031" (CR_PARAMS_NOT_BOUND) if you passed an empty array).

Thus the following function is incorrect in case the prepared statement has been "bound" before:

<?php
function customExecute(PDOStatement &$sth, $params = NULL) {
    return
$sth->execute($params);
}
?>

and should therefore be replaced by something like:

<?php
function customExecute(PDOStatement &$sth, array $params = array()) {
    if (empty(
$params))
        return
$sth->execute();
    return
$sth->execute($params);
}
?>

Also note that PDOStatement::execute() doesn't require $input_parameters to be an array.

(of course, do not use it as is ^^).
up
6
mail at horn-online-media dot de
2 years ago
hi,

just a qick note to get started without problems when using quotation: PDO does NOT replace given variables if they are wrapped in quotationmarks, e.g.

<?php

$st
= $db->prepare( '
    INSERT INTO fruits( name, colour )
    VALUES( :name, ":colour" )
'
;
$st->execute( array( ':name' => 'Apple', ':colour' => 'red' ) );

?>

results in in a new fruit like

-> Apple, :colour

without the colour beeing replaced by "red". so leave variables WITHOUT the quotation - PDO will do.
up
4
Robin Millette
3 years ago
If you're going to derive PDOStatement to extend the execute() method, you must define the signature with a default NULL argument, not an empty array.

In otherwords:
<?php
class MyPDOStatement extends PDOStatement {
 
// ...

  // don't use this form!
  // function execute($input_parameters = array()) {
  // use this instead:
 
function execute($input_parameters = null) {
     
// ...
     
return parent::execute($input_parameters);
  }
}

?>

As a sidenote, that's why I always set default parameter to NULL and take care of handling the actual correct default parameters in the body of the method or function. Thus, when you have to call the function with all the parameters, you know to always pass NULL for defaults.
up
4
Tony Casparro
4 years ago
We know that you can't see the final raw SQL before its parsed by the DB, but if you want to simulate the final result, this may help.

<?php
public function showQuery($query, $params)
    {
       
$keys = array();
       
$values = array();
       
       
# build a regular expression for each parameter
       
foreach ($params as $key=>$value)
        {
            if (
is_string($key))
            {
               
$keys[] = '/:'.$key.'/';
            }
            else
            {
               
$keys[] = '/[?]/';
            }
           
            if(
is_numeric($value))
            {
               
$values[] = intval($value);
            }
            else
            {
               
$values[] = '"'.$value .'"';
            }
        }
       
       
$query = preg_replace($keys, $values, $query, 1, $count);
        return
$query;
    }
?>
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5
Jean-Lou dot Dupont at jldupont dot com
6 years ago
Hopefully this saves time for folks: one should use $count = $stmt->rowCount() after $stmt->execute() in order to really determine if any an operation such as ' update ' or ' replace ' did succeed i.e. changed some data.

Jean-Lou Dupont.
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4
albright atat anre dotdot net
6 years ago
When passing an array of values to execute when your query contains question marks, note that the array must be keyed numerically from zero. If it is not, run array_values() on it to force the array to be re-keyed.

<?php
$anarray
= array(42 => "foo", 101 => "bar");
$statement = $dbo->prepare("SELECT * FROM table WHERE col1 = ? AND col2 = ?");

//This will not work
$statement->execute($anarray);

//Do this to make it work
$statement->execute(array_values($anarray));
?>
up
2
richard at securebucket dot com
2 years ago
Note:  Parameters don't work with a dash in the name like ":asd-asd" you can do a quick str_replace("-","_",$parameter) to fix the issue.
up
2
Ant P.
6 years ago
As of 5.2.6 you still can't use this function's $input_parameters to pass a boolean to PostgreSQL. To do that, you'll have to call bindParam() with explicit types for each parameter in the query.
up
2
dbrucas
7 years ago
If you don't want to turn on exception raising, then try this:

    //$dbErr = $dbHandler->errorInfo(); OR
    $dbErr = $dbStatement->errorInfo();
    if ( $dbErr[0] != '00000' ) {
        print_r($dbHandler->errorInfo());
        die( "<div class='redbg xlarge'>FAILED:  $msg</div><br />".$foot);
    // or handle the error your way...
            }
    echo "SUCCESS:  $msg<br />";
... continue if succesful
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3
ElTorqiro
3 years ago
When using a prepared statement to execute multiple inserts (such as in a loop etc), under sqlite the performance is dramatically improved by wrapping the loop in a transaction.

I have an application that routinely inserts 30-50,000 records at a time.  Without the transaction it was taking over 150 seconds, and with it only 3.

This may affect other implementations as well, and I am sure it is something that affects all databases to some extent, but I can only test with PDO sqlite.

e.g.

<?php
$data
= array(
  array(
'name' => 'John', 'age' => '25'),
  array(
'name' => 'Wendy', 'age' => '32')
);

try {
 
$pdo = new PDO('sqlite:myfile.sqlite');
}

catch(
PDOException $e) {
  die(
'Unable to open database connection');
}

$insertStatement = $pdo->prepare('insert into mytable (name, age) values (:name, :age)');

// start transaction
$pdo->beginTransaction();

foreach(
$data as &$row) {
 
$pdo->execute($row);
}

// end transaction
$pdo->commit();

?>
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2
anon at anon dot com
2 years ago
If your MySQL table has 500,000+ rows and your script is failing because you have hit PHP's memory limit, set the following attribute.

<?php $this->pdo->setAttribute(PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_USE_BUFFERED_QUERY, false); ?>

This should make the error go away again and return memory usage back to normal.
up
2
simon dot lehmann at gmx dot de
7 years ago
It seems, that the quoting behaviour has changed somehow between versions, as my current project was running fine on one setup, but throwing errors on another (both setups are very similar).

Setup 1: Ubuntu 6.10, PHP 5.1.6, MySQL 5.0.24a
Setup 2: Ubuntu 7.04, PHP 5.2.1, MySQL 5.0.38

The code fragment which caused problems (shortened):
<?php
$stmt
= $pdo->prepare("SELECT col1, col2, col3 FROM tablename WHERE col4=? LIMIT ?");
$stmt->execute(array('Foo', 1));
?>

On the first Setup this executes without any problems, on the second setup it generates an Error:

SQLSTATE[42000]: Syntax error or access violation: 1064 You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near ''1'' at line 1

The problem is, that $stmt->execute() quotes the number passed to the second placeholder (resulting in: ... LIMIT '1'), which is not allowed in MySQL (tested on both setups).

To prevent this, you have to use bindParam() or bindValue() and specify a data type.
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2
russel at sunraystudios dot com
7 years ago
I've used it and it returns booleans=>
$passed = $stmt->execute();
if($passed){
echo "passed";
} else {
echo "failed";
}

If the statement failed it would print failed.  You would want to use errorInfo() to get more info, but it does seem to work for me.
up
1
Whitebeard
4 months ago
If you are having issues passing boolean values to be bound and are using a Postgres database... but you do not want to use bindParam for *every* *single* *parameter*, try passing the strings 't' or 'f' instead of boolean TRUE or FALSE.
up
0
nils andre with my googelian maily accou
2 years ago
I realized that I ran into serious trouble when debugging my PHP scripts from the command line, and despite of going to fetchAll and so, I always got the error

SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 2014 Cannot execute queries while other unbuffered queries are active.

I realized that I had a double init command:

PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => "SET NAMES utf8; SET CHARACTER SET utf8;"

The first one is the better choice and removing the latter, the error is gone.
up
0
T-Rex
2 years ago
When you try to make a query with a date, then take the whole date and not just a number.

This Query will work fine, if you try it like this:
SELECT * FROM table WHERE date = 0

But if you try it with prepared you have to take the whole date format.
<?php
$sth
= $dbh->prepare('SELECT * FROM table WHERE date = :date');
$sth->execute( $arArray );

//--- Wrong:
$arArray = array(":date",0);

//--- Right:
$arArray = array(":date","0000-00-00 00:00:00");
?>

There must be something with the mysql driver.

best regards
T-Rex
up
-2
Daniel
6 years ago
You could also use switch the order of t1 and t2 to get user_id from t1 (tested on postgresql):

SELECT
   t2.*,
   t1.user_id, t1.user_name
FROM table1 t1
LEFT JOIN table2 t2 ON t2.user_id = t1.user_id
WHERE t1.user_id = 2
up
-4
narcis at narcisradu dot com
7 years ago
For a query like this:

SELECT
   t1.user_id, t1.user_name,
   t2.*
FROM table1 t1
LEFT JOIN table2 t2 ON t2.user_id = t1.user_id
WHERE t1.user_id = 2

If I don't have an entry in table2 for user_id=2, the user_id in  result will be empty.

SELECT
   t1.user_id, t1.user_name,
   t2.user_pet, t2.user_color, t2.user_sign
FROM table1 t1
LEFT JOIN table2 t2 ON t2.user_id = t1.user_id
WHERE t1.user_id = 2

This query will return nonempty user_id.

So please be careful with wildcard select.
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